Work Package 3: Sustainability and circular economy (Lead: NINA)

Main WP Objectives: 1) Develop an LCA to evaluate and ensure economic and environmental sustainability of RPT technology. 2) Assess environmental aspects and test innovative mitigations to improve the environmental footprint. 3) Assess social acceptance of pump storage and the technical solutions presented.

Task 3.1: Perform an LCA of to evaluate/ensure economic and environmental sustainability in Reversible

Primary data, mainly from primary sources, will be collected to ensure high-quality life cycle inventory (LCI) data for power plant and turbine manufacturing. Information from previous work packages, particularly WP5, will be utilized. A literature review and databases like Ecoinvent will supplement data. Life cycle impact assessment will quantify environmental impacts, including climate change and water depletion. Evaluation will cover new applications and retrofitting existing turbines with RPT, including end-of-life scenarios for material circularity. Comparisons with conventional energy sources will be made to support EU carbon neutrality goals. Additionally, potential environmental benefits in untapped hydro-power storage opportunities in Europe will be estimated. This comprehensive approach aims to inform stakeholders and provide technical support for environmental impact assessments.

Task 3.2: Evaluate environmental impacts to RPT storage and test innovative mitigation methods to improve the environmental footprint.

Task 3.2 evaluates how large-scale RtR pump-storage technology at Tjørhom HPP in Norway impacts reservoir ecosystems. The installation involves pumping water from a lower to a higher altitude, potentially introducing new species and altering water temperature. The study will use environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis to map species diversity, comparing reservoirs and assessing ecosystem risks. Mitigation measures will be proposed based on findings. This task is linked to Work Package 5, Task 5.2.

Task 3.3: Social acceptance

Reducing negative environmental impacts and impacts for users are important to address. For example, how more frequent fluctuations in reservoir water levels affects the use of the reservoirs with regards to boating and recreational angling with nets when reservoirs are filled or drained to the maximum allowed level (note that the water levels in Svartevatn and Gravatn can be regulated 119 m and 35 m, respectively). This task will comprehensively address social acceptance of the innovations within Store2Hydro.

Main Outputs:

D3.1: LCA-report (Month 24)

D3.2: Report on ecosystem effects (Month 36)

D3.3: Movie on social acceptance (Month 36)

D3.4: Public perception report (Month 24)